"When the people fear the government, there is tyranny. When the government fears the people, there is liberty."
~ Thomas Jefferson

What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?
  • What made it difficult for Adams to follow the policy of neutrality?
  • How did Adams come to the conclusion to send a peace mission?
  • Why didn't Adams consider other people's opinions or points of view?

external image US_Navy-031029-CLOSEUP-N-6236G-001_A_painting_of_President_John_Adams_(1735-1826),_2nd_president_of_the_United_States,_by_Asher_B._Durand_(1767-1845).jpg
  • Gathering and Evaluating Evidence:
  • We started by choosing the dilemma and reading the textbook. We then came up with questions and started to search online for more specific and better documents. Some struggles we had were finding the answers to our questions. We also looked at each individual document closely and picked information that helped us come to our conclusion.
    __http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/navalbattles16001800/p/quasiwar.htm__ On this website we learned about the Quasi - War. We went to this website thinking we would find answers to our questions, but we then learned about the Quasi - War being the signing of the Jay Treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain.
    __http://www.nohum.k12.ca.us/tah/maprojects/Cox.pdf__ On this website we learned a little bit about our question about how Adams came to the conclusion of sending a peace mission. When we analyzed the document and learned that President John Adams actually sent two peace missions and the first one failed.
    __http://millercenter.org/president/adams/essays/biography/5__ On this website we learned that President Adams asked Congress if he could summon 80,000 militiamen to duty.
    Text Book- we learned about our dilemma and the obvious facts.
  • Adams peace mission backfired. And the Alien and Sedition Acts didn't work either. So, Adams was still uncertain whether or not there was going to be a war.
  • 3 secret agents or x, y, and z, known as the XYZ affair.
  • Two different peace missions. Proposed the second mission in February 1799 to France.
  • Adams wanted to follow Washington's policy of neutrality but France made it hard.
  • Sent John Jay to England to settle things.
  • Britain refused to leave the Ohio River valley.external image obrien-ranger-drake.jpg
  • The John Treaty - England pulled troops out of Ohio Valley.
  • French felt betrayed so started an attack on our ships.
  • XYZ affair the Federalists were very popular.
  • Adams sent 3 envoys to discuss the situation.
  • Met by 3 agents and became the XYZ affair.
  • Refused to discuss unless the U.S. paid a bribe and 32 million Francs.
  • The Jay Treaty delayed an immediate threat of combat with England, but made the French mad.
  • Quasi-War was the result of disagreements over treaties and America's status as a neutral in the Wars of the French Revolution.
  • Adams knew that no matter how great the war would be for the Federalists Party it would still hurt their country.
  • President Adams to summon up to 80,000 militiamen to active duty.

We found that we could not really answer our exact questions, but we found information to better understand the dilemma. We found that there were actually two peace missions and the first mission failed. Another thing we found out was that the French would not discuss with the U.S. unless they paid a bribe of 32 million Francs. We felt that our conclusion was good, but did not answer our question very well. Yes, our conclusion was surprising because we didn't get the exact answers for our questions, but we did find other surprising facts about this dilemma.